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意识形态一词出自法国哲学家特拉西

意识形态一词出自法国哲学家特拉西。从词源学的角度来看,它(Ideology)来自于希腊文іδεа和λόγοѕ两个词,前者义为观念或思想,后者义为学说,合在一起便是“观念的科学”。意识形态的词汇生成,源于法国大革命,Seeley Bonaparte把它定义为谎言和混乱的产物 ,拿破仑称帝之际也曾以“意识形态家”轻蔑得称呼批评他的哲学家们。而在广义的系谱上,意识形态甚至可以追溯到柏拉图的《理想国》,以一种“高贵的谎言”(The noble lie)形式出现。
The word ideology is used first by French philosopher Tracy. From the perspective of etymology, ideology originated from two Greek words іδεа and λόγοѕ: the former means concept or thought while the latter means theory. So when being combined together they mean “conceptual science”. The word “ideology” stems from the French Revolution. Seeley Bonaparte defined it as a product of lies and confusion; Napoleon also contemptuously called philosophers who criticized him as “ideologists” when he claimed to be the emperor. In a broad sense, ideology can even be traced back to Plato’s Utopia, in which it appears in the form of “the noble lie”.
意识形态从观念领域进入到政治领域,表现为一种改造社会、实现理想的革命工程。从欧洲的历史出发,意识形态几乎脱离了上帝的意旨,体现为人文主义的行动。在上帝已死的诸神时代,意识形态面对众多漂浮的意义、话语和价值系统,必须通过某一“缝合点”(points de caption)将它们都缝合在一起,阻止它们的滑动,从而把它们的意义统一在意识形态系统中。
From the field of concept to the political field, ideology shows itself as a revolutionary project which aims at remolding society and achieving ideals. Seen from the European history, ideology almost breaks away from wills of the God and is embodied as humanist actions. In the era where people can choose their believes freely, ideology is faced with many floating meanings, utterance and value systems, so it has to stitch them together through certain “points de caption” and prevent them from sliding, and thereby unify their meanings within certain ideological systems.
这种“缝合点”,体现为不同的意识形态话语表述。在前苏联,“共产主义”扮演着“缝合点”的角色:阶级斗争是为了消除剥削,计划经济是为了经济发展,对农民的剥削变成对农民的恩惠,而这一切都被统筹到“共产主义”的话语表述中,并从中获得了合理性。
This "point de caption” is shown by discourse expression of different ideologies. In the former Soviet Union, "communism" plays the role of “point de caption”: class struggle is to eliminate the exploitation; planned economy is to develop economic; exploitation on peasants becomes kindness shown to them; and all of these are included in the “communism” and acquire rationality from it.
因此,意识形态在产生之初,就意味着观念的分歧,以及重建共识的努力。 在下文的研究中,我们会关注意识形态理论的变迁,以及它在中国历史分期中所起到的不同作用。国家视角的意识形态构成了稳定的、一致的话语系统,使得几乎一切的政治、社会变革,都需要稳定的意识形态作为过渡。这样,意识形态就体现为:既保守继承,又积极改变,既必须落后于社会、政治的变革,又不至于落后过多。意识形态和社会、政治呈现一种适应和交替变化的景象。
Therefore, from the beginning, ideology means the differences of concepts and efforts to rebuild consensus. In the following text, we will focus on the changes of ideological theories and its functions respectively played in different stages of Chinese history. Ideology from the national perspective forms a stable and consistent discourse system, making all politic and economic reforms need a stable ideology for the transition. So ideology is embodied as: conservative but positive for change; lagging behind social and politic reforms but not lagging behind too much. Ideology and society & politics adapt to each other while changing alternatively.
进入到“启蒙后”的社会时,意识形态理论的局限性逐渐暴露。意识形态关注的是观念领域的共识,并通过国家力量达成行动的一致性。在启蒙之后,人们逐渐认识到意识形态的虚假性。意识形态似乎并非如其所宣称的一样体现了全体人民的利益,而更多是在维护秘而不宣的统治群体利益。至此,观念的共识逐渐被打破,人民虽然对此一清二楚,却依旧坦然处之。
When entering the "Post-enlightenment" society, limitation of the ideology theory was gradually exposed. Ideology focused on the consensus in the field of concept and achieving consistency of actions through national power. But after being enlightened, people gradually realize the falsity of ideology. It seemed that ideology didn’t embody the interests of all the people as it had claimed; instead, it focused more on the protection of interests of secret ruling groups. Thus, the consensus in concepts was gradually broken. People knew this clearly but they made no actions.
斯洛克迪克把这一现象称为犬儒主义,这是一种“启蒙的虚假意识”。 在观念领域的共识破裂之后,现代犬儒主义构成了行动上的特殊共识。人民的行动并非从观念出发,甚至也没有依赖理性,而是深深根植于集体记忆和集体无意识中。这样,犬儒主义以一种“虚假意识”的方式,进入了意识形态尚未触及的层面,在这里观念和行动既彼此分离,又彼此统一,构成了一种合谋结构。
Dick Keyes called this phenomenon cynicism, which is a kind of “false consciousness of enlightenment”. After the consensus in conceptual field is broken, modern cynicism constitutes special consensus in actions. People’s action is not based on concepts, and even doesn’t depend on reason; instead it’s deeply rooted in collective memory and collective unconsciousness. In this way, with the way of “false consciousness”, cynicism enters where the ideology hasn’t touched. Here the concepts and actions separate from each other while unifying with each other, which forms a kind of conspiring structure.
中国社会提供了现实土壤,在这里滋生了犬儒主义。一般认为,现代犬儒主义是一种“不抗拒的接受”,它虽然进行社会批判,但由于丢失了批判的理想性,最后反而维护了它的批判对象。学者们大多对此持一种否定的态度,前捷克总统哈维尔提出了“活在真实中”的主张,以此和极权主义下的犬儒倾向做决裂。但在意识形态的框架下,犬儒主义是否必要?笔者认为还需讨论。在中国现实下,意识形态并不仅仅是虚假的景象,犬儒主义也超越了“启蒙的虚假意识”。在某种程度上,人们恰恰是依赖于意识形态的误认,才建立了自我认同;社会恰恰是受益于犬儒主义的虚假,才结构了自身。
Chinese society provides the realistic soil, where cynicism breeds. Generally, modern cynicism is a kind of “acceptation without resistance”. It criticizes the society but due to the loss of idealism of criticism, it, on the contrary, safeguards the objects of its criticism at last. Most scholars hold a negative attitude about this. Former President of Czech Vaclav Havel proposed to “live in reality” so as to break with totalitarian cynicism. But under the frame of ideology, is cynicism actually necessary? I think further discussion is needed. In China, ideology is not simply a false phenomenon and cynicism also has surpassed the “false consciousness of enlightenment”. To some extent, it’s exactly by depending on the false recognition of ideology that people establish their self-identification; and it’s just the falsity of cynicism that the society constructs itself.

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